He died 11 years ago, but few social scientists are more vilified than J. Philippe Rushton. The Ontario government actually tried to prosecute him when he presented his Differential-K model of racial differences in 1989 [In Memoriam—Dr. Philippe Rushton (1943-2012), by Albert Katz, John Allemang, and John Furedy, Society for Academic Freedom and Scholarship, January 2013]. Rushton showed that data on intelligence, age at puberty, psychopathic personality, interest in promiscuous sex over investment and nurture, and much else, placed blacks at one end of a spectrum and East Asians at the other, with whites in the middle. New studies just keep proving him correct. The latest will especially infuriate the Woke: a survey of more than 100 prostitutes has supported Rushton’s hypothesis about sexual behavior and physical sexual characteristics among the races.
Sex workers evoke an element of cognitive dissonance among the Left. On one hand, their work is unexceptionable, but on the other the Oldest Profession tends to confirm “stereotypes” from evolutionary psychology—that women trade sexual intercourse for resources, possibly because they are evolved to do so. As eminent evolutionary psychologist David Buss has shown, women’s evolved instincts are different from those of men [The Evolution Of Desire: Strategies of Human Mating, by David Buss, Basic Books, June 26, 2003].
To infuriate the Woke academicians even more, one of the authors is the Danish independent researcher Emil Kirkegaard, whom they relentlessly attack. Kirkegaard and his co-author George Francis also recently demonstrated the accuracy and predictive validity of national IQ differences.
Their study, Racial Differences in Sexuality: A Sex Worker Survey [Mankind Quarterly, June 2023], began with an online survey of 129 prostitutes, whittled down from a larger number of respondents. Because the survey website requires respondents to be paid, the final question the authors asked was whether the respondents were really prostitutes. “At this point there was no monetary incentive to lie,” the authors concluded.
The prostitutes answered 13 questions about the physical characteristics, sexual preferences and sexual behaviors of clients of different races. The results demonstrated the veracity of Rushton’s Differential-K model.
Remember, Reproductive or “R” strategy develops in an unstable yet easy environment. An individual or his people could be wiped out at any moment, so they evolve to “live fast and die young.” Almost all energy is invested in mating, to have as many offspring as possible with as many partners as possible in the hope that some survive. Little energy is invested, meaning wasted, on nurture.
R-strategy is reflected in every aspect of an individual’s “life history.” Born less developed, he reaches developmental milestones more quickly, such as puberty or losing virginity.
Then again, the individual ages more quickly and dies younger. Thus, he advertises his genetic quality as conspicuously as possible—the end is always nigh—leading to large secondary sexual characteristics, strong body odor, and so on.
But to the extent that new environments are more stable and also harsher, the carrying capacity for the species is reached. So its members start competing more for survival. In such a harsh but predictable context, if a male invests all his energy in mating, then all of his children might die.
There develops an arms race where the species becomes increasingly adapted to the predictable ecology. It does this by becoming more intelligent … learning about the ecology and how to cooperate by bonding. “Life history” slows. Parents invest more energy in nurturing fewer children and less energy in mating.
This is called K-strategy. The species goes for “quality over quantity.”
In a stable environment in which parents trust that tomorrow will come, children are fewer and born later. They develop more slowly and go through puberty later, while learning a great deal in their long childhood. They lose virginity later, they age more slowly and, for genetic reasons, they die older, giving them more time to pass on their genes.
Rushton showed that what he called the “three Big Races” occupy different positions on the r-K spectrum. Northeast Asians are the most K-evolved, Caucasians (a combination of Arabs, Europeans, South Asians, and North Africans) are intermediate, while blacks are the least K-evolved and the most R-evolved.
That model predicted Francis’ and Kirkegaard’s findings in their most recent study. The vast majority of prostitutes reported that blacks had larger penises than whites and that whites had larger penises than East Asians. Blacks were estimated to have the largest testicles and East Asians the smallest. Blacks had relatively little interest in kissing, whereas whites were the most interested.
The authors note that kissing is not a human universal. It is a culturally based sexual practice. About 70 percent of European societies practice it, as against only 13 percent of African societies.
The evolutionary purpose of kissing seems to be bonding, as well as assessing genetic quality and similarity, with a view to ensuring that the bond with the offspring will be high and that they will be strongly adapted to the local environment. But these considerations are less important in a promiscuous and unstable context of “live fast, die young.”
The study also explains how blacks, whites, and Asians differ in their preferences for secondary sex characteristics; i.e., breasts versus buttocks. Blacks prefer the latter, an interest reversed in whites and especially in East Asians.
K-strategists are inclined to bond, the authors suggest, and therefore, make eye-contact during sex. Thus, they would prefer the secondary sexual characteristic that encourages them to do so.
“There are some lines of evidence that breasts may have evolved for strong pair bonding and as part of the human slow life history strategy,” the authors write. “The development of large breasts as secondary sexual characteristics requires men to be attracted to a signal of temporary infertility, in turn possibly requiring long-term pair bonding.”
But blacks, again, are more interested in the posterior of a woman’s anatomy. “A popular stereotype of Black culture suggests that blacks put a greater sexual emphasis on the buttocks rather than breasts,” the authors write:
For example, the courtship display of "twerking" originates from and is popular in African-American culture. ... Similar practices can be seen in African cultures as Rushton and [Anthony] Bogaert (1987) stated in summarizing anthropological observations. They note, “in Africa, dances have been invented which emphasize undulating rhythms and mock copulation.”
The preoccupation with the buttocks in Black culture is also famously expressed in the lyrics “I like big butts and I cannot lie” in Sir Mix-a-Lot’s hit song Baby Got Back. [YouTube] Differences in the proportions of secondary sexual characteristics might also reflect and be a response to racial differences in sexual preferences. An extreme example of such physiological difference are the Khoikhoi and Bushmen females of Southern Africa who have the trait of steatopygia—considerable fat tissue on the thighs and buttocks.
84% of sex workers think Blacks prefer or strongly prefer buttocks to breasts …This is the most confident view sex workers held in any question with regard to any race. Compared to Whites, Blacks were more interested in buttocks … and more interested in doggy-style [intercourse]. … These results are strongly in line with the stereotype of Black interest in the buttocks.
Prostitutes rated East Asians as the most “polite” of their clients and blacks as the least polite. Blacks were also the least interested in anything “kinky,” such as the prostitute pretending to be the client’s girlfriend. This is consistent with whites and East Asians being more interested in relationships and bonding.
Overall, then, Rushton’s model is yet again vindicated.
However, the study raises certain questions. The prostitutes said blacks strongly prefer oral sex. As the authors note, that is completely inconsistent with many surveys that found the opposite, oral sex being about bonding and testing genetic quality and similarity [Differences in Oral Sexual Behaviors by Gender, Age, and Race Explain Observed Differences in Prevalence of Oral Human Papillomavirus Infection. PLOS ONE, January 2014].
The prostitutes found that blacks have the largest testicles. Again, the authors observe, a large-scale study found that whites have larger testicles than blacks, possibly because whites create more complex societies that provide women with the better chance to cuckold the men, which in turn leads to greater sperm competition [Europeans Have Larger Testes than Sub-Saharan Africans but Lower Testosterone Levels, Mankind Quarterly, 62, March 2022.(PDF)]
But the authors suggest that prostitutes are more likely to see differences in penis than testicle size because “they are unlikely to pay attention to the testes during intercourse.” So their answers about that question might simply reflect the stereotypical assumption that “blacks are bigger.”
Another odd finding: East Asians were only about as interested in kissing as blacks. Perhaps that’s because it is a particularly cultural trait.
A possible explanation for these inconsistencies: Men who use prostitutes differ by race. As fast Life History Strategists, blacks should be far more inclined to use prostitutes. (Additionally, most of these sex workers had limited experiences with non-white clients.)
So, broadly speaking, this study vindicates Rushton, although it raises questions.
Lance Welton [email him] is the pen name of a freelance journalist living in New York.