...there are few if any Indian groups that are demographically very large, and the degree of genetic differentiation among Indian jati groups living side by side in the same village is typically two to three times higher than the genetic differentiation between northern and southern Europeans. The truth is that India is composed of a large number of small populations.
In these articles, Steve tries to assess the IQ of India as a whole:
In these two, I note that Angela Saini, who denies all race differences in her book Superior, was happy to say in her other book Geek Nation, How Indian Science is Taking Over the World, that India is triumphing based on the "scientific ingenuity of its people."
That would be the scientific ingenuity of some of its people. The Sainis, for example.
Let Wikipedia tell you about the Saini caste:
As both a statutory agricultural tribe and a designated martial race during the British Raj era that followed the Indian Rebellion of 1857, Sainis had been chiefly engaged in both agriculture and military service since then until recent times. However, since the independence of India, Sainis have diversified into different trades and professions other than military and agriculture. Sainis are now also seen in increasing numbers as businessmen, lawyers, professors, civil servants, engineers, doctors and research scientists, etc.
Untouchables, aka Dalits, on the other hand, are not only shunned by higher caste Hindus, they really do need Affirmative Action.