1. That humanity evolved from lower animals according to the process of natural selection outlined by Charles Darwin.This is discussed in Cornelius Troost's book Apes or Angels? Darwin, Dover, Human Nature, and Race, which has its own website at ApesOrAngels.com. (The title comes from a famous remark by Benjamin Disraeli, made at the Oxford Diocesan Conference in 1864: "Is man an ape or an angel? ... I am on the side of the angels".)
The book is a refutation of Stephen Jay Gould's peculiar idea that despite all the visible differences between different races, of which evolution is the cause, and of which skin color is only one, there must be no difference between the races in average IQ. The reason I call this a peculiar idea, although it's the "conventional wisdom," it's enshrined in law, and you can lose your job for not believing it, there's no actual evidence for it.
You can see Cornelius Troost discussing the concepts in his book on YouTube (complete series here):