"Disparate-impact jurisprudence rests on a massive lie: that blacks and whites would score identically on tests of cognitive ability, absent a biased test design. Given the racial disparities in average cognitive skillsâ€”black 12th-graders read, on average, at the level of white eighth-gradersâ€”it is impossible to design a test measuring cognitive ability that will not have a lower black pass rate. Garaufis, however, rejects this reality; he has sneered at the cityâ€™s suggestion that the differences in scores between white, black, and Hispanic fire department applicants reflect differences in â€?capability and preparedness,â€? calling that explanation â€?dubious.â€? Instead, in Garaufisâ€™s world-view, racial differences in test results reflect the presence of racial animus." Fighting Fire with Quotas A federal judgeâ€™s dangerous crusade against the FDNY October 24, 2010This "racial animus" is supposed be coming from Mayor Bloomberg and the City Council of New York.